Document Type


Subject Area

Counselor Education


The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which multicultural counseling courses throughout the United States include course objectives and pedagogical strategies recommended in the literature (Arredondo et al., 1996) and in professional counseling standards and guidelines. Findings from 277 participants indicate that most, not all, courses include the recommended objectives and strategies. The most common (85.9%) objective was self- awareness of own values and biases, whereas only approximately 50 percent included an objective related to critiquing counseling theories. The most common pedagogical strategies were classroom discussions/debates (95.3%), whereas fewer than half integrated cross-discipline readings and student research. The authors suggest dialogue and empirical investigations necessary to further the practice of multicultural counselor training.